See these

Friday, 16 April 2010

5.5 Control Scope

Monitoring and Controlling, Scope Management

Monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline. This ensures that all the changes and corrective/ preventive actions are processed through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.


· Project Management Plan

- Scope Baseline

For comparing if a change, corrective or preventive action is required.

- Scope Management Plan

For controlling and managing scope.

- Change Management Plan – For managing change.

- Configuration Management Plan – defines the items which are configurable, those items which require formal change control and the process of controlling these items.

· Work Performance Information

Information on project’s progress, status of deliverables, if they are started, on progress or finished.

· Requirements Documentation

· Requirements Traceability Matrix

· OPAs

Tools and Techniques:

· Variance Analysis

Used to assess the magnitude of variation from original scope baseline. Important aspects of project scope control include determining the cause and variance relative to the scope baseline. Also, deciding whether the corrective or preventive action is required.


· Work Performance Measurements

Measurements of planned v actual technical performance. This information is documented and communicated to stakeholders.

· OPA Updates

Cause of variance

Corrective action taken and reasons

Lessons learned from project scope control.

· Change Requests

· Project Management Plan updates

Scope baseline updates

Other baseline updates

· Project Document updates

Requirements documentation

Requirements traceability matrix

Friday, 9 April 2010

5.3 Create WBS

Planning, Scope Management

Top down approach to divide project deliverables and work into smaller, more manageable components. The WBS organizes and defines the total scope of the project, and represents the work specified in the current approved project scope statement. This is deliverable oriented approach and includes project scope, product scope and project management efforts. This is created with help of the team under the leadership of Project Manager.

Control Account: Used to estimate costs from a higher level. (Not at work package level.)

Notes: Normally, first level of decomposition is project life cycle, but there are other approaches such as major deliverables/ subprojects (outsourcing) at level1. WBS is also used as a communication tool. This can be also be used as a team building activity.

WBS can be used to: evaluate scope change, control scope creep, comms tool, role mapping. It doesn’t show dependencies.


Project Scope Statement

Requirements Documentation


Tools and Techniques:


The WBS can be created with following approaches:

1. Phases of Project Life cycle as first level of decomposition.

2. Major Deliverables as first level of decomposition.

3. Using subprojects which may be developed outside of the team. (Contracts, Outsourcing)

The project team waits till the deliverable or subproject is clarified before WBS can be developed. This technique is referred as ‘rolling wave planning’. Decomposition is not possible that will be accomplished far into the future.

WBS represents all product and project work, including the project management work. The total of the work at the lowest levels must roll up to higher levels so that nothing is left out and no extra work is completed. This is also referred to as a 100% rule.



WBS Dictionary – used to prevent scope creep.

Scope Baseline – Project Scope Statement, WBS and WBS dictionary.

Project Document Updates – such as Requirements Documentation, when approved change requests result from Create WBS process.

Thursday, 8 April 2010

5.2 Define Scope

Planning, Scope Management

Developing detailed description of project and product. Builds upon the major deliverables, assumptions and constraints documented during project initiation. Analysis of existing risks, assumptions and constraints are done for completeness and additional risks, assumptions and constraints are added, if necessary.


Project Charter – See 4.1

Requirements Documentation – See


Tools and Techniques

Expert Judgment – May be available from following sources:

- Other Units within the organization.

- Consultants

- Stakeholders, including customer or sponsor.

- Professional and technical associations.

- Industry Groups and

- Subject Matter Experts.

Product Analysis – Can be an effective tool, where product is a deliverable rather than a service or result. Techniques such as product breakdown, system analysis, requirements analysis, systems engineering, value engineering and value analysis can be used for product analysis.

Alternatives Identification – Generating different approaches to execute and perform project work. Techniques such as brainstorming lateral thinking and pair wise comparison.

Facilitated Workshops


Project Scope Statement

- Product Scope Description

- Product acceptance criteria

- Project Deliverables – deliverables which comprise the product or service of the project as well as ancillary results, such as PM reports and documentation.

- Project Exclusions – helps in managing stakeholder expectations.

- Project Constraints – contractual provisions, may be listed in a separate log.

- Project Assumptions – impact when assumptions proved to be false.

Project Document Updates

- Stakeholder register

- Requirements documentation

- Requirements Traceability matrix

Tuesday, 6 April 2010

5.1 Collect Requirements

Planning, Scope Management

Defining and documenting stakeholder needs. Requirements include quantified and documented needs and expectations of the sponsor, customer and other stakeholders. Requirements become the basis of WBS, Cost, Schedule and Quality Planning.


Project Charter – Output from 4.1

Stakeholder Register – Output from 10.1

Tools and Techniques

Interviews – Direct with stakeholders/ subject matter experts.

Focus Groups – prequalified stakeholders and subject matter experts with help of trained moderator.

Facilitated Workshops –

JAD – Joint Application Development

QFD – Quality Function Deployment (product development) using VOC – voice of customer.

Group Creativity Techniques

- Brainstrorming

- Nominal Group Technique – Brainstorming with voting process.

- The Delphi Technique – Questionnaires from Experts to facilitator, anonymity

- Idea/ Mind Mapping – Ideas from brainstorming consolidated to a map. Looks like several trees are generated from a core word.

- Affinity Diagram - ideas sorted into groups. Helps in identifying additional scope/ risks, not identified earlier.

- Questionnaire’s and Surveys – not in PMBOK

- Observation

- Prototypes

Group Decision Making Techniques

- Unanimity

- Majority

- Plurality – largest block and majority not achieved aka single largest party.

- Dictatoship

Questionnaires and Surveys




Requirements Documentation

Requirements Management Plan

Requirements Traceability Matrix